Firing waste disposal and recycling are, perhaps, the most versatile, reliable and efficient means available to the agglomerations. In many cases, using these technologies is the only possible way of disposal of industrial and domestic waste. The method applied for waste disposal is suitable for waste in any physical state: liquid, solid, gaseous or paste. Along with combustible waste processing and recycling non-combustible waste can be used. In this case, the waste is subjected to high temperature (1000°C) combustion products.
Controlled incineration process is called oxidation of solid, liquid or gaseous combustible waste. During combustion carbon dioxide, water, and ash are generated. Sulfur and nitrogen contained in the waste are turn into various oxides and chlorine is reduced to HC1 during combustion. In addition to the gaseous products of the combustion of waste produced the solids – metal, glass, slag, etc; requiring further recycling or disposal.
This method is characterised by high sanitary and hygiene-effectiveness. The list of application of combustion methods and nomenclature of waste that can be processed is constantly expanding. These include waste of chlororganic industries, basic organic synthesis, production of plastics, rubber and synthetic fibers, oil refining industry, wood chemistry, chemical pharmaceutical and microbiological industry, mechanical engineering, radio engineering, instrument-making industry, paper and many other industries.
Combustion method allows processing mixtures of organic and inorganic products, as well as halogenated waste, such complex in terms of waste disposal. A mixture of organic and inorganic salts – the most difficult material for combustion, as it typically partly comprised of water. When burning such material’s molecule organic compounds are destroyed and inorganic compounds are converted into oxides and carbonates, which are derived from the combustion zone along with the slag and ash. Fine particles of oxides and carbonates contained in the flue gas are captured in a wet scrubber.
One of the most hazardous waste, the primary method of processing of which is burning, is halogenated products. Fluorine and bromine wastes are less common, but they are treated in the same manner as the chlorine-containing materials. Chlorinated organic materials may comprise an aqueous phase or a certain amount of water. Waste with a high content of chlorine have a low calorific value, as the chlorine, bromine and fluorine similarly, prevents the combustion process.
According to Simdean, a prominent company with focusing on innovative plasma waste disposal and industrial waste disposal methods, an optimal performance of the combustion process depends on the compliance with process parameters: temperature in the combustion reactor, the specific load, the working volume of the reactor, dispersion spraying, the aerodynamic structure and the degree of turbulence of gas flow in the reactor, as well as a number of other factors.
Burning is carried out in furnaces of various designs, the main element of which is a grate, which actually runs the process. The space inside the furnace is divided into several zones, where the series of processes takes place. The combustion process consists of five stages – drying, gasification, ignition, combustion and post-combustion, which are usually launched sequentially, but may take place simultaneously as well.