The evolvement of construction and materials

cropped-thevenusprojectArchitecture is an important indicator of the historical development of mankind. With the rise of a nation and civilisation in general the architecture inevitably becomes more advanced and sophisticated; in consequence, building materials evolve too.

Limestone, presumably, was the first building material used by man: lime plates lie in the foundation of the Egyptian pyramids and the Great Wall of China. The strength of ancient masonry structures is provided by the perfect fit for stones – cementing materials, were discovered centuries later. Concrete was invented in ancient Rome – the Romans invented concrete, which, congealing, acquired the strength and durability of the stone. All this has enabled the Romans to create magnificent, monumental castles and palaces.

The role of hydraulic lime in modern building industry

Building projects become way more sophisticated as years pass on, and economic feasibility is no longer the most essential factor even in residential projects. Thus, sophisticated conditions may dictate the requirements for successful implementations, and these requirements drive innovations and changes in production of building technologies and materials.

Therefore, to ensure proper hardness, plaster solutions are used as inorganic binders with water and various additives. Binders also represent construction materials used for the manufacture of concrete and mortar. Binders are used in plaster works and are divided into three main groups: mineral (air and hydraulic); organic, and mixed with special properties.

For the erection of structures in humid operating conditions, as well as for constructing plinths and foundations of large buildings, irrigation canals, preparation of masonry mortar and plaster for use in wet conditions and in the manufacture of lime, ash and lime-slag binders hydraulic lime is widely utilised. This product is obtained by calcining before sintering to marly limestone, contains from 6 to 25% of fine clay and sand admixtures. In accordance with industry standards the result of manufacturing of lime is the fine powder, with sifting residue of particles on the sieve not exceeding 1 – 15%.

Apart from clay impurities hydraulic lime is also comprised of incorporating magnesium carbonate and other impurities. Since the building lime is manufactured from natural raw materials without any additional components, to obtain the artificial mixture of uniform composition marly limestones with uniform distribution of clay and other impurities must be provided. Construction specialists of Telling Company, a far-famed Wolverhampton-based architectural agency widely applying hydraulic lime and lime mortar solutions, admit that not each type is suitable for this or that construction site and individual characteristics have a decisive factor on the choice. The quality of products depends on the form of compounds – limestone or other impurities. Hydraulic lime typically estimated in accordance with a primary or hydraulic module, which is the ratio of percentage of weight of calcium oxide to the percentage of acidic oxides.

Clinical negligence in the UK: the serious cases of the last decade

x-ray-1459448One of the most resonant clinical negligence cases in the UK was the error made by a nursing personnel of a Wiltshire hospital. A terrible mistake that was made has led to irreparable consequences for the patient. The nurse, Violetta Aylward, has mistakenly shut down lungs ventilation system of the patient. The accident took place in 2009 (but the details were revealed in 2012) and it was recorded by the CCTV camera installed in the room.

In 2002 a 37-year-old Jamie Merrett, fell into a heavy car accident, the result of which was paralysation of the body. He lived at home, connected to a life support system. He retained the clarity of mind, was able to speak, used wheelchair and operated various devices using voice recognition commands.

However, after a 21 minute of disconnection from the system, an irreparable blow was delivered to his brain. His sister, Curran Reynolds, says, ‘now his life has changed. But, it is not the life he used to live. He was a smart man, you could have talked to him for hours, but now his mind has become primitive’. The tragic accident happened in January, 2009. Curran Reynolds did not wait till someone took responsibility – it all went complicated according to her and she decided to file a complaint. The agency, which is under contract with the public service health care provided nursing services for Mr. Reynolds, still supposedly investigating. Violetta Aylward, the nurse was suspended from work.

The case in Britain is not the first and, unfortunately, not the last, recollecting a fairly recently completed court settlement into the death in 2004 of 30-year-old Mayra Cabrera. She gave birth at the same hospital, where she worked as a nurse. The birth went well, but Cabrera put on a drip to normalise blood pressure. And the nurse injected her with a strong analgesic instead of saline, the drug, as it turned out, was ‘similar in appearance’. The hospital paid the fine, has pledged to label products better and conduct annual certifications in obstetricians. The compensation rates vary from case to case, but in general, competent legal assistance is the key towards a successful issue resolution. You may want to get contacts of decent medical negligence solicitors at, an aspiring UK legal startup aggregating law services at one place.

How is it going in the US?

Interesting stats: according to newspaper Chicago Tribune, in the United States starting from 1995 to 2000, no less than 1720 patients died in hospitals, and about 10,000 of patients were seriously injured through the fault of the nurses – because of their inaction or wrong action. In accordance with the publication, the main causes behind the issues are that nurses and nursing personnel are either poorly trained or overworked, or are not currently under the influence of drugs. A relatively infrequent punishment of nursing personnel is another factor CT underlines – they are rarely fired and in the worst case scenario move to another states, where they work in the same profession.

A Closer Look At Exterior Wall Finishing Options

What choice do you have as for the paints for aggressive, humid or conventional environments? Well, the choice is more than extensive. This question torments, perhaps, everyone thinking about the upcoming repairs, as the number of finishing materials available in modern stores keeps on growing year after year. Wallpapers, plastic panels, decorative plaster crumbs from natural or artificial stone, waterproof paints… the variety of colors, shades and textures and dozens of various combinations is oftentimes too confusing.



However, make the right choice, in fact, it is not that difficult. The main thing is to make a choice in favour of material with characteristics that meet the area requirements and guarantee long years of trouble-free operation. By the way, the easiest and most affordable way to design the walls is considered to be the application of paint. This option is recently preferred by ordinary consumers, professional designers, and, of course, manufacturers. Such innovative companies as Britannia replenish their lineup of exterior wall coatings on virtually annual basis.

How it works

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The unmatched combustion efficiency in waste disposal

plasma-converter-1Firing waste disposal and recycling are, perhaps, the most versatile, reliable and efficient means available to the agglomerations. In many cases, using these technologies is the only possible way of disposal of industrial and domestic waste. The method applied for waste disposal is suitable for waste in any physical state: liquid, solid, gaseous or paste. Along with combustible waste processing and recycling non-combustible waste can be used. In this case, the waste is subjected to high temperature (1000°C) combustion products.

Controlled incineration process is called oxidation of solid, liquid or gaseous combustible waste. During combustion carbon dioxide, water, and ash are generated. Sulfur and nitrogen contained in the waste are turn into various oxides and chlorine is reduced to HC1 during combustion. In addition to the gaseous products of the combustion of waste produced the solids – metal, glass, slag, etc; requiring further recycling or disposal.

This method is characterised by high sanitary and hygiene-effectiveness. The list of application of combustion methods and nomenclature of waste that can be processed is constantly expanding. These include waste of chlororganic industries, basic organic synthesis, production of plastics, rubber and synthetic fibers, oil refining industry, wood chemistry, chemical pharmaceutical and microbiological industry, mechanical engineering, radio engineering, instrument-making industry, paper and many other industries.

Combustion method allows processing mixtures of organic and inorganic products, as well as halogenated waste, such complex in terms of waste disposal. A mixture of organic and inorganic salts – the most difficult material for combustion, as it typically partly comprised of water. When burning such material’s molecule organic compounds are destroyed and inorganic compounds are converted into oxides and carbonates, which are derived from the combustion zone along with the slag and ash. Fine particles of oxides and carbonates contained in the flue gas are captured in a wet scrubber.

One of the most hazardous waste, the primary method of processing of which is burning, is halogenated products. Fluorine and bromine wastes are less common, but they are treated in the same manner as the chlorine-containing materials. Chlorinated organic materials may comprise an aqueous phase or a certain amount of water. Waste with a high content of chlorine have a low calorific value, as the chlorine, bromine and fluorine similarly, prevents the combustion process.

According to Simdean, a prominent company with focusing on innovative plasma waste disposal and industrial waste disposal methods, an optimal performance of the combustion process depends on the compliance with process parameters: temperature in the combustion reactor, the specific load, the working volume of the reactor, dispersion spraying, the aerodynamic structure and the degree of turbulence of gas flow in the reactor, as well as a number of other factors.

Burning is carried out in furnaces of various designs, the main element of which is a grate, which actually runs the process. The space inside the furnace is divided into several zones, where the series of processes takes place. The combustion process consists of five stages – drying, gasification, ignition, combustion and post-combustion, which are usually launched sequentially, but may take place simultaneously as well.

Patenting Burdens And Legal Obstacles For Innovation

Medicine+patent+landscape+studiesOn the one hand, patent law developed enough to adequately protect the interests of inventors and manufacturers of new products and other interested parties (access information about the nature of patentable subject matter).

On the other hand, the same positive features grow into quite different phenomena affecting the market. The rapid growth in the number of patent applications in many countries in recent years is leading to a slowdown and a decline in the quality of patent offices, duplication of their efforts in considering applications identical in different countries. It also complicates the access for inventors and other persons to reliable the information about the contents and scope of protection of existing patents, but it reduces the level of scientific knowledge available to society by choosing the inventors do not patent their forms of protection. The state of affairs seriously increases transaction costs and the costs for obtaining all the necessary licenses in the issuance of technologically sophisticated devices. The current legislation deprives the profits of manufacturers for a long time waiting for the issuance of a patent and multiplies the number of legal disputes between multiple patent holders in certain areas.

The way to go

National patent offices should seek to establish close cooperation with the relevant authorities in other countries to use the same database of patentable subject matter in order to simplify and expedite the review of applications.

The increase in patents in overlapping fields of science and technology leads to a multiplication of interrelated patent lack of understanding of who exactly is necessary to obtain consent for the use of his invention, the growth of conflict and litigation, to the prevalence of “defensive” nature of patenting (instead of stimulating innovation), receivable low scientific patents to the emergence of patent obstacles when several different owners of patents prevent each of them to produce their products, as well as try to acquire malicious profit from owning interdependent patents (the production of smartphones is a bright example).

The fastest growing in recent years is the number of patents in the field of computer technology and telecommunications, and industry experts express serious doubts that the patenting support innovation. Inventions in these areas often follow logically from existing inventions and innovations, rather than represent a new word in science and technology. As a result, support for innovation is weak, and patents form a long list of obstacles of course, hindering market growth.

There is no single way to solve the problem of patent ‘thickets’. Market participants themselves are taking advantage of different methods of restoring order: creating standards, patent pools and so on. Businesses tend to invest heavily in maintaining legal cleanness, and virtually all the solid entities dealing with research and innovation put maximum effort into protecting the fruits of their labour. A quick example is universities, investing into researches and looking to ensure ROI numbers; e.g. the University of Manchester has established UMIP, the branch that assists scientific departments with intellectual property and commercialisation fields.

Awaiting government moves

States in this regard can take the following three steps:

Prevent the spread of patenting on areas of business where the catalytic role of patents lower compared to the overhead created, increase the amount of fees for maintaining the patent in force and provide for the issuance of patents of higher quality.

Technologies In Action: Vehicle Injectors Ultrasound Cleaning

The injectors are activated with electric shock and nozzles used in engines with distributed fuel injection may have the lower, upper side or supply of fuel. At the lower traverse a constant flow of gasoline through the nozzle is performed, which ensures it is cooled and prevents the formation of vapor bubbles. With a high pressure injection this problem can be solved without the flow of fuel through the nozzle.

Electromagnetic nozzles are manufactured with a tolerance of 1 micron and are able to work up to a billion cycles. The main reason for the violation of their operation is pollution in the operation, although the way of mechanical particles are fuel filters that discard the particles larger than 10-20 microns. They are installed in the fuel line and the injector itself.

The latter are relatively small and are designed to ensure the purity of the fuel supplied to the nozzle, cutting a particularly small inclusions, penetrated through the filter of thin clearing of fuel. The absorption capacity is low, and clogged, they leave the nozzle on a starvation diet. To avoid this, you need to monitor the condition of the filter of thin clearing of fuel. The main reason for pollution of atomizers is lower-quality fuel and the presence in its composition of heavy fractions.

Clean injectors with ultrasound

Not always the use of chemical cleaning methods nozzles brings results. And this is where more effective technologies come to the rescue – ultrasonic cleaning is one of them.

Nozzles are removed and placed in a special bath. In simple technological processes these baths are the only devices that make the magic happen. Thus, e.g. a range of basic ultrasonic cleaner devices by Hilsonic, a prominent UK manufacturer, demand just plugging in AC/DC adapter. Under the influence of ultrasonic vibrations liquid particles per second reciprocating motion with a frequency generator. Because of the inertia of the movement not only micro-volumes of liquid with sharp changes in acceleration happens, but also an abrupt change in the pressure in them is monitored. The working fluid bombards the surface of the cleaned items and rips off its dirt particles. Such intense comminution enhances fluid movement dirt particles in the working fluid.

Most notably, the complete removal of contaminants by means of ultrasound is achieved even in the narrow recesses and holes cleaned product. The nozzles are immersed in a bath of the dosing part, establishing a special holder. It is important that they are in limbo, constantly washing the cleaning liquid when exposed to ultrasonic vibrations. If the nozzle will touch the bottom of the bath, it can lead to premature failure of the ultrasonic generator.

After cleaning an ultrasonic bath a so-called backwash is initiated. To complete this process filters are removed and by means of special adapter placed in the bath. Remnants of dirt are washed with fluid in the reverse direction.

Any of the above methods of cleaning should end with quality control. Sometimes, in order to achieve an acceptable quality of the cleaning process the procedure has to be repeated several times.

Staying at the top. Is the battle worthy of efforts?


Do you really have to pave your way to the top 3 pantheon? Of course, yes. But a more precise answer would be – ‘yes, but queries matter’. Thus, you can consider queries basing on the following parameters:

  • Frequency
  • Competition and, as a consequence, the cost of the promotion (the higher the competition – the more you will pay)
  • The commercial component

There may be general queries, such as: category name, brand name, product category ligament plus brand; queries of transactional type: the action category name, type of information requests review category, the category ratings; and the so-called model queries (model names). For the companies from different industries and business models the online strategy as for the presence in Google’s top the optimal cost/return ratio for all sorts of queries can be different.

There are two basic rules:

  1. The product portfolio has more than 1,000 products, with clear identification (manufacturer, model name). Comparing prices in this case does not pose any difficulties. It will work the best return on the complete range of modeling needs. There’s also interesting to work on the impact of ligaments product category plus brand – relevance is determined in each case depending on the cost of entering the position. Obviously, general queries are characterised by high competition and, as a rule, the high cost of inputs, while the returns are doubtful.

Here is an example of the mechanism of purchase – a typical selection mechanism for some category of products with the following stages:

  1. General inquiry (checking the subject).
  2. General queries + informative component (specifications, selections, comparisons) and/or transaction requests.
  3. General queries + brand (if the user has a preference for any brand – the sequence of actions can start with this step).

Model request

This one implies researching themes the buyer is primarily interested in and checking the most complete and qualitative descriptions. After defining the model, the user usually enters a query in the search engine, but now it aims to define the place of purchase with the most attractive conditions for it (besides the presence of goods which may be the price, customer service benefits, etc.). And here it may not be your site. He saw you before, read about the product at your site. Helping with buying is a good thing, but it doesn’t necessarily means it converts good. In the end, your final goal is generating sales. You should also keep in mind the alternative model names. Moreover, by utilising these names you can obtain up to 50% or even more model of traffic.

Typical industries for the first category: electronics, appliances, etc.

The product category has a common name, while each supplier of the product is unique. Comparison of the goods can be a hassle. You supply the exclusive goods. For the second category it is much better to run general queries, and usually, the game is worth the candle for them. Typical industries for the second category are flowers, gifts and others.

Staying on top and making your way to it is a tough challenge. You may want to get in touch with marketing industry professionals to squeeze the most of your efforts – drop in at HTP Digital website – this prominent digital marketing Manchester agency is an industry standout boasting impressive results with narrowly focused companies dealing with ultrasonic cleaning and graphene products, not to mention more conventional business niches.